Pages 4-10

Translation

Én férfi vagyok. = I am a man.
Én nő vagyok. = I am a woman.
Én fiú vagyok. = I am a boy.
Én lány vagyok. = I am a girl.

Ő nő. = She is a woman.
Ő férfi. = He is a man.
Ő lány. = She is a girl.
Ő fiú. = He is a boy.

Mi nők vagyunk. = We are women.
Mi férfiak vagyunk. = We are men.
Ok fiúk. = They are boys.
Ok lányok. = They are girls.

Itt vagyok. = I am here.
Itt van. = She is here.
Ott van. = He is there.
Ott van. = She is there.

Ez egy üveg. = This is a bottle.
Ez egy nagy üveg. = This is a big bottle.
Ez egy kicsi üveg. = This is a small bottle.
Itt van az üveg. = The bottle is here.
Ott az üveg van? = Is the bottle there?
Az üveg nincs ott. = The bottle is not there. There is no bottle there.

Ez egy asztal. = This is a table.
Az asztal ott van. = The table is there.
Itt az asztal van? = Is the table here?
Az asztal nincs itt. = The table is not here. There is no table here.
Hol van az üveg? = Where is the bottle?
Az üveg az asztalon van. = The bottle is on the table.

Mi ez? = What is this?
Ez egy könyv. = This is a book.
Milyen ez a könyv? = What kind of book is this?
Ez egy nagy könyv. = This is a big book.
Ez egy kicsi könyv. = This is a small book.
A könyvek itt vannak. = The books are here.

Grammar

1. In Hungarian when you want to say "he/she/it is..." or "they are..." followed by a noun or adjective, the verb "van/vannak" is omitted. These are called "equational sentences" and this rule applies only to the third person. That is why it is correct to say "Ő nő" but incorrect to say "Én nő". When you want to say something else which is not equational, for example, where something is, the verb must be included.

2. Emphasis in a sentence is always at the beginning of the sentence, and word order is very important for conveying different meanings. For example, "Az asztal ott van" means "There is the table" with the emphasis being that the table is not HERE but THERE. And, "Ott az asztal van" means that there is a TABLE (and not a bottle or some other object).

3. Hungarian cases can be difficult to understand, but it may be easier if you think about them simply as suffixes. Hungarian nouns have no gender, so there are not many forms you have to learn for the suffixes. This lesson introduces the suffix/case meaning "on (some surface)" using the ending "-on". It can also appear as "-en", "-ön", and "-n". The technical name for this case in grammar books is the Superessive.

4. The word "nincs" expresses "there is no", so do not use it to express "not". :)